Ko e hisitolia ʻo e taʻo maa.

ʻOku ʻi ai ha hisitolia loloa mo mahutafea ʻo e taʻo maa ʻo foki ki he ngaahi sivilaise ʻo e kuonga muʻa. Naʻe fakaʻaongaʻi ʻa e ʻuluaki ʻovani ʻe ʻe he kau ʻIsipite ʻo e kuonga muʻa ʻi he 2500 BC ke taʻo ʻa e maa mo e fakaneifua. Ko e fanga kiʻi ʻōvani ko ʻení ko ha ngaahi langa ʻumea faingofua mo ha afi ʻi loto, pea naʻe tuku ʻa e maá ʻi he efuefu vela ʻo e feimeʻatokoní.

Naʻe toe mafola lahi ange ʻa e taʻo mo e Puleʻanga Loma, ʻi he taimi naʻe langa ai ʻe he kau Loma ha bakeries lalahi ki he kakai ke ʻoatu ha ma ki honau kakai. ʻI he ngaahi fale taʻo ma ko ʻeni, naʻe taʻo e maa ʻi ha ʻovani ʻe fana fefie pea ngaohi mei he mahoaʻa, vai, pea taimi ʻe niʻihi ko e huʻakau pe fuaʻimoa.

ʻI he kuonga Lotoloto, naʻe taʻo pe ʻa e maa ʻi monasteries, ʻo hange ko hono ngaohi ʻo e maa ko ha founga ʻo e ʻofa faka-Kalaisi. Naʻe kamata foki ke fakaʻaongaʻi ʻe Bakers ha ngaahi keleni kehekehe, kau ai ʻa e fakapaku mo e polisi, ke ngaohi ʻaki ha ma.

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ʻI he senituli 19 mo e 20, naʻe fai ai ʻe he maa ha ngaahi liliu mahuʻinga koeʻuhi ko hono fakafeʻiloaki ʻo e ʻisite fakakomesiale, ʻaisi mo e mechanization. Naʻe lava ʻe he ngaahi fakalakalaka ko ʻení ʻo ʻai ke lahi ange ʻa e mā naʻe faʻú pea lava foki ai ke fakatupulaki ʻa e faʻahinga mā foʻou hangē ko e sanuisi mā mo e mā naʻe tomuʻa kosi.

ʻI he ʻaho ni, ʻoku kei fakamaʻu pe ʻa e maa ʻi ha ngaahi anga fakafonua lahi ʻi he funga ʻo e mamani pea ʻoku faʻu ia ʻi ha ngaahi founga kehekehe, mei he fanga kiʻi bakeries iiki artisan ki ha ngaahi ngaue fakakomesiale lalahi.

Ko e hisitolia ʻo e maa ʻoku taʻo ʻi he senituli 1.

ʻOku ʻi ai ha hisitolia loloa ʻo e taʻo maa ʻo aʻu ki he ngaahi sivilaise ʻo e kuonga muʻa, pea naʻe ʻikai toe kehe ʻa e senituli 1. ʻI he tuʻuaki ʻo e senituli 1, naʻe hoko ʻa e maa ko ha meʻakai fakamaʻu ʻi he ʻEmipaea Loma pea naʻe fakaʻauha ia ʻe ha kakai mei he tapa kehekehe ʻo e moʻui. Naʻe taʻo ʻe he kau Lomá ʻa e mā ʻi he ʻōvani naʻe faʻo ai e ʻakaú pea nau fakaʻaongaʻi ha ngaahi keleni kehekehe, kau ai ʻa e uité, paʻale, mo e mile, ke ngaohi ʻaki ha faʻahinga mā kehekehe.

Naʻe faʻa ngaohi ʻa e maa mei he mahoaʻa, vai, pea taimi ʻe niʻihi ko e huʻakau pe fuaʻimoa. Naʻe kneaded ʻa e tou pea faʻu ki ha ngaahi foʻi ma naʻe taʻo ʻi he ʻovani. Naʻe fakaʻaongaʻi foki ʻe he kau Loma ha ngaahi founga kehekehe ke fakaifo ʻaki ʻenau maa, kau ai hono tanaki ʻo e fanga kiʻi ʻakau iiki, sipaisi, mo e tengaʻi ʻakau ki he tou.

Naʻe ʻikai ngata pe ʻi he hoko ʻa e maa ko ha meʻakai fakamaʻu, ka naʻa ne toe fakahoko foki ha fatongia fakasosiale mo fakafonua mahuʻinga ʻi he sosaieti Loma. Naʻe faʻa foaki ʻa e maa pea toe hoko foki ia ko ha founga ke totongi ʻaki. Ko hono moʻoni, naʻe toe fakaʻaongaʻi foki ʻa e foʻi lea Loma ki he "maa" (panis) ko e ʻuhinga ki he paʻanga.

Kuo fekauʻaki ʻa e taʻo maa mo liliu ʻi he ngaahi senituli kuo hili, pea ko e ʻaho ni ko ha meʻakai fakamaʻu ia ʻi ha ngaahi anga fakafonua lahi ʻi he funga ʻo e mamani.

"Köstliches

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Ko e hisitolia ʻo e maa ʻoku taʻo ʻi Siaina.

Kuo laui senituli e hoko ʻa e maa ko ha meʻa fakamaʻu ʻi Siaina, pea ʻoku fehokotaki vaofi ʻa e hisitolia ʻo e maa ʻi Siaina mo hono fakatupulaki ʻo e uite ʻi he vahefonua. Naʻe fakafeʻiloaki ʻa e uite ki Siaina mei ʻEsia Lotoloto he taʻu nai ʻe 2000 kuo hili pea vave ʻene hoko ko ha keleni manakoa ki hono ngaohi ʻo e maa mo e ngaahi koloa taʻo kehe.

ʻI Siaina he kuonga muʻa, naʻe taʻo ʻa e maa ʻi ha ʻovani ʻe fana fefie pea naʻe faʻa ngaohi mei he mahoaʻa uite, vai, pea taimi ʻe niʻihi ko e huʻakau pe fuaʻimoa. Naʻe kneaded ʻa e tou pea faʻu ki ha ngaahi fotunga kehekehe hange ko e foʻi maa pe ngaahi vaʻakau loloa pea taʻo ʻi he ʻovani.

ʻI he fakalau atu ʻa e taimi, kuo fekauʻaki ʻa e maa mo e taʻo ʻi Siaina pea liliu. ʻI he senituli 19 mo e 20, ko hono fakafeʻiloaki ʻo e ʻisite fakakomesiale mo e mechanization ma ʻoku ngaohi ʻi Siaina, ʻo malava ai ke ngaohi ʻa e maa mo hono fakatupulaki ʻo ha ngaahi meʻa foʻou.

ʻI he ʻaho ni, ko e maa ko ha meʻakai manakoa ia ʻi Siaina pea ʻoku vela ia ʻi ha ngaahi fotunga kehekehe, kau ai ʻa e buns, tohi taliui, mo e ngaahi foʻi ma sipinga faka-Hihifo. ʻOku ʻomi ʻe he bakeries faka-Siaina mo e supermarkets ha ngaahi naunau ma lahi, kau ai ʻa e breads tukufakaholo mo fakaonoponi.

 

Ko e hisitolia ʻo e ma ʻoku taʻo ʻi ʻIsipite he kuonga muʻa.

ʻOku ʻi ai ha hisitolia loloa ʻo e maa ʻi ʻIsipite he kuonga muʻa pea ko ha meʻakai fakamaʻu ia ʻi he vahefonua ʻi ha taʻu ʻe lauiafe. Naʻe fakaʻaongaʻi ʻa e ʻuluaki ʻovani ʻe ʻe he kau ʻIsipite ʻo e kuonga muʻa ʻi he 2500 BC ke taʻo ʻa e maa mo e fakaneifua. Ko e fanga kiʻi ʻōvani ko ʻení ko ha ngaahi langa ʻumea faingofua mo ha afi ʻi loto, pea naʻe tuku ʻa e maá ʻi he efuefu vela ʻo e feimeʻatokoní.

Naʻe fakaʻaongaʻi ʻe he kau ʻIsipite ʻo e kuonga muʻa ha ngaahi keleni kehekehe, kau ai ʻa e uite mo e paʻale, ke taʻo ʻaki e maa. Naʻa nau toe tanaki atu foki mo ha ngaahi meʻa hange ko e huhuʻaʻi hone, ʻaho, mo e fuamelie ki he tou ke tanaki atu hono ifo ki he maa. Naʻe ʻi ai ha tefitoʻi fatongia ʻo e maa ʻi he maʻumeʻatokoni ʻa e kau ʻIsipite ʻo e kuonga muʻa pea naʻe fakaʻauha ia ʻe ha kakai mei he tapa kehekehe ʻo e moʻui.

Naʻe ʻikai ngata pe ʻi he hoko ʻa e maa ko ha meʻakai fakamaʻu, ka ko ha konga mahuʻinga foki ia ʻo e ngaahi ouau fakalotu pea naʻe faʻa fakaʻaongaʻi ia ko ha feilaulau ki he ngaahi ʻOtua. Naʻe lau hono ngaohi ʻo e maa ko ha ngaue fakaʻeiʻeiki ʻi ʻIsipite he kuonga muʻa pea naʻe fiefia ʻa e kau taʻo maa ʻi ha tuʻunga fakasosiale maʻolunga.

Kuo laui senituli ʻa e taʻo maa pea ʻoku hoko ia he taimi ni ko ha meʻakai fakamaʻu ʻi ha ngaahi anga fakafonua lahi ʻi he funga ʻo e mamani.

 

Ko e hisitolia ʻo e taʻo ma ʻaki ʻa e vesitapolo.

Ko hono tanaki atu ʻo e vesitapolo ki he tou maa ko ha fakalakalaka kimui ni mai ia ʻi he hisitolia loloa ʻo e taʻo maa. Neongo kuo laui senituli hono fakaʻaongaʻi ʻo e vesitapolo ʻi ha ngaahi ngoue kehekehe ke tanaki atu hono ifo mo e ivi ki he maa, ka naʻe toki kamata pe hono fakaʻaongaʻi ʻo e vesitapolo ʻo hange ko e konga mahuʻinga ʻo e maa kae ʻoua kuo aʻu ki he senituli 20.

Ko e taha ʻo e ngaahi fuofua sipinga ʻo e ma vesitapolo ko e ma inu manakoa ʻo ʻAilani, ʻa ia ʻoku ngaohi mei he mahoaʻa, taʻo inu, masima mo e buttermilk. Neongo ʻoku ʻikai ko ha meʻa tukufakaholo ia, ka ʻoku faʻa tanaki atu he taimi ʻe niʻihi ʻa e kaloti grated pe fuamelie ke tanaki atu hono ifo mo e melie ki he maa.

ʻI he ngaahi taʻu ʻo e 1970, naʻe fakaʻau ke manakoa ange ʻa e breads vesitapolo ʻi he fakaʻau ke tokanga ange ʻa e kakai ki hono fakakau ha vesitapolo lahi ange ʻi heʻenau diets. Naʻe tupu mei he fetoʻaki ko ʻení ʻa hono fakatupulaki ʻo ha mā foʻou hangē ko e mā sukini, mā hina mo e mā pateta melie.

ʻI he ngaahi ʻaho ni, ko e ma ʻoku ngaohi mei he vesitapolo ko ha fili manakoa ia kiate kinautolu ʻoku nau feinga ke tanaki atu ha meʻakai lahi ange ki heʻenau meʻakai, pea ʻoku maʻu ia ʻi ha ngaahi founga kehekehe, kau ai ʻa e maa, tohi taliui, mo e tohi taliui. ʻOku fakaʻaongaʻi ʻa e vesitapolo ʻi he maa ʻoku taʻo ʻi ha ngaahi founga kehekehe, kau ai ʻa e grating, pureeing mo hono fakakau atu ki he tou.