Umlando wokubhaka isinkwa.

Ukubhaka isinkwa unomlando omude futhi ocebile oqala empucukweni yasendulo. Ama-ovens okuqala aziwayo ayesetshenziswa abaseGibhithe lasendulo emhlabeni we-2500 BC ukubhaka isinkwa nama-pastries. La ma-ovens okuqala ayengukwakhiwa kobumba okulula ngomlilo ngaphakathi, futhi isinkwa sabekwa phezu komlotha oshisayo wokupheka.

Ukubhaka kwasakazeka ngokwengeziwe noMbuso WaseRoma, lapho amaRoma akha amabhikawozi amakhulu omphakathi ukuze anikeze izakhamuzi zawo isinkwa. Kulezi zindawo zokubhaka, isinkwa sasibhakwa kuhhavini owenziwe ngokhuni futhi senziwe ngofulawa, amanzi, futhi ngezinye izikhathi ubisi noma amaqanda.

NgeNkathi Ephakathi, isinkwa sasibhakwa ikakhulukazi kuma-monasteries, njengoba ukukhiqizwa kwesinkwa kwakubhekwa njengendlela yomusa. Ababhaki nabo baqala ukusebenzisa izinhlobonhlobo ezibanzi zokusanhlamvu, kufaka phakathi i-rye ne-oats, ukwenza isinkwa.

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Ngekhulu le-19 nele-20, ukubhaka isinkwa kwabhekana nezinguquko ezinkulu ngenxa yokwethulwa kwemvubelo yokuhweba, ifriji kanye nemishini. Le ntuthuko yenza ukukhiqizwa ngobuningi besinkwa futhi yaphinde yenza ukuthuthukiswa kwezinhlobo ezintsha zesinkwa ezifana nesinkwa se-sandwich nesinkwa sangaphambi kokusika.

Namuhla, isinkwa siseyinto eyinhloko emasikweni amaningi emhlabeni jikelele futhi sikhiqizwa ngezindlela ezihlukahlukene, kusukela kumabhikawozi amancane wezandla kuya emisebenzini emikhulu yokuhweba.

Umlando wokubhaka isinkwa ngekhulu le-1.

Ukubhaka isinkwa unomlando omude oqala empucukweni yasendulo, futhi ikhulu le-1 lalingahlukile. Ngekhulu lokuqala AD, isinkwa sasiwukudla okuyinhloko eMbusweni WaseRoma futhi sasidliwa abantu abavela kuzo zonke izizinda zokuphila. AmaRoma abhaka isinkwa kuhhavini owenziwe ngokhuni futhi asebenzisa okusanhlamvu okuhlukahlukene, kufaka phakathi ukolweni, ibhali, kanye ne-millet, ukwenza izinhlobo ezahlukene zesinkwa.

Isinkwa sasivame ukwenziwa ngofulawa, amanzi, futhi ngezinye izikhathi ubisi noma amaqanda. Inhlama yayixubha futhi ibunjwe ibe izinkwa ezabe zibhakwa kuhhavini. AmaRoma aphinde asebenzisa amasu ahlukahlukene ukunambitheka kwesinkwa sawo, kufaka phakathi ukwengeza amakhambi, izinongo nembewu enhlama.

Isinkwa sasingewona nje ukudla okuyinhloko, kodwa futhi sadlala indima ebalulekile yezenhlalakahle namasiko emphakathini wamaRoma. Isinkwa sasivame ukunikezwa futhi futhi sikhonzwe njengendlela yokukhokha. Eqinisweni, igama lesiRoma elisho "isinkwa" (panis) nalo lalisetshenziselwa ukubhekisela emalini.

Ukubhaka isinkwa kuye kwaguquka futhi kwashintsha emakhulwini eminyaka, futhi namuhla ukudla okuyinhloko emasikweni amaningi emhlabeni wonke.

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Umlando wokubhaka isinkwa eChina.

Isinkwa sibe yinto eyinhloko eChina izinkulungwane zeminyaka, futhi umlando wokubhaka isinkwa eChina uhlobene kakhulu nokuthuthukiswa kokulima ukolweni esifundeni. Ukolweni wethulwa eChina usuka e-Asia Ephakathi eminyakeni engaba ngu-2000 edlule futhi ngokushesha waba okusanhlamvu okuthandwayo kokwenza isinkwa nezinye izimpahla ezibhakiwe.

E-China yasendulo, isinkwa sasibhakwa kuhhavini owenziwe ngokhuni futhi ngokuvamile senziwe ngofulawa kakolweni, amanzi, futhi ngezinye izikhathi ubisi noma amaqanda. Inhlama yayixubha futhi ibunjwe ibe izimo ezahlukene ezifana nezinkwa eziyindilinga noma izinti ezinde bese ibhakwa kuhhavini.

Ngokuhamba kwesikhathi, ukubhaka isinkwa eChina kuye kwaguquka futhi kwashintsha. Ngekhulu le-19 nele-20, ukwethulwa kwemvubelo yokuhweba kanye nokwenza imishini kwaguqula ukwenza isinkwa eChina, okwenza ukukhiqizwa okuningi kwesinkwa nokuthuthukiswa kwezinhlobo ezintsha.

Namuhla, isinkwa ukudla okuthandwayo eChina futhi sidliwa ngezindlela eziningi ezahlukene, kufaka phakathi ama-buns, imiqulu, nezinkwa zesitayela saseNtshonalanga zesinkwa. Amabhikawozi aseShayina nezitolo ezinkulu zinikeza uhla olubanzi lwemikhiqizo yesinkwa, kufaka phakathi izinkwa zendabuko nezanamuhla.

 

Umlando wokubhaka isinkwa eGibhithe lasendulo.

Isinkwa esinomlando omude eGibhithe lasendulo futhi sasiwukudla okuyinhloko esifundeni izinkulungwane zeminyaka. Ama-ovens okuqala aziwayo ayesetshenziswa abaseGibhithe lasendulo emhlabeni we-2500 BC ukubhaka isinkwa nama-pastries. La ma-ovens okuqala ayengukwakhiwa kobumba okulula ngomlilo ngaphakathi, futhi isinkwa sabekwa phezu komlotha oshisayo wokupheka.

AbaseGibhithe lasendulo babesebenzisa okusanhlamvu okuhlukahlukene, kuhlanganise nokolweni nebhali, ukubhaka isinkwa. Baphinde bengeze izithako ezifana noju, izinsuku, nama-raisin enhlama ukwengeza ukunambitheka esinkwa. Isinkwa sadlala indima esemqoka ekudleni kwabaseGibhithe lasendulo futhi sadliwa abantu abavela kuzo zonke izizinda zokuphila.

Isinkwa sasingewona nje ukudla okuyinhloko, kodwa futhi kwakuyingxenye ebalulekile yemikhosi yenkolo futhi sasivame ukusetshenziswa njengomnikelo konkulunkulu. Ukukhiqizwa kwesinkwa kwakubhekwa njengomsebenzi omuhle eGibhithe lasendulo futhi ababhaki bajabulela isimo esiphezulu senhlalo.

Ukubhaka isinkwa kuye kwaguquka emakhulwini eminyaka futhi manje sekunokudla okuyinhloko emasikweni amaningi emhlabeni wonke.

 

Umlando wokubhaka isinkwa ngemifino.

Ukwengezwa kwemifino enhlama yesinkwa kuyintuthuko yakamuva emlandweni omude wokubhaka isinkwa. Ngenkathi imifino isetshenziswe ezitshalweni ezihlukahlukene amakhulu eminyaka ukwengeza ukunambitheka nezakhi zomzimba esinkwa, ukusetshenziswa kabanzi kwemifino njengesithako esiyinhloko sesinkwa akuzange kuqale kuze kube yikhulu lama-20.

Esinye sezibonelo zokuqala zesinkwa semifino isinkwa esithandwayo se-soda sase-Ireland, esenziwe ngofulawa, i-baking soda, usawoti kanye nebhotela. Nakuba kungeyona isithako sendabuko, izaqathe eziqoshiwe noma ama-raisin ngezinye izikhathi zengezwa ukwengeza ukunambitheka nobumnandi esinkwa.

Eminyakeni yawo-1970, izinkwa zemifino zathandwa kakhulu njengoba abantu baba nesithakazelo kakhulu ngokufaka imifino eminingi ekudleni kwabo. Lo mkhuba waholela ekuthuthukiseni izinkwa ezintsha ezifana nesinkwa se-zucchini, isinkwa samathanga nesinkwa esimnandi samazambane.

Kulezi zinsuku, isinkwa esenziwe ngemifino siyisinqumo esithandwayo kulabo abafuna ukwengeza umsoco omningi ekudleni kwabo, futhi sitholakala ngezindlela ezihlukahlukene, kufaka phakathi izinkwa, imiqulu, kanye nemiqulu. Imifino isetshenziselwa ukubhaka isinkwa ngezindlela ezihlukahlukene, kufaka phakathi i-grating, i-pureeing nokufaka inhlama.